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A Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Ralinepag to Improve Treatment Outcomes in PAH Patients
Study ROR-PH-301, ADVANCE OUTCOMES, is designed to assess the efficacy and safety of ralinepag when added to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) standard of care or PAH-specific background therapy in subjects with World Health Organization (WHO) Group 1 PAH.
• At least 18 years of age.
• Evidence of a personally signed and dated informed consent form indicating that the subject has been informed of all pertinent aspects of the study prior to initiation of any study-related procedures.
• Subjects who are willing and able to comply with scheduled visits, treatment plan, laboratory tests, and other study procedures
• Primary diagnosis of symptomatic PAH.
• Has had a right heart catheterization (RHC) performed at or within 3 years prior to Screening (RHC will be performed during Screening if not available) that is consistent with the diagnosis of PAH.
• Has WHO/ NYHA functional class II to IV symptoms.
• If on PAH-specific background oral therapy, subject is on stable therapy with either an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) and/or a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5-I) or a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator.
• Has a 6MWD of ≥150 meters.
• If taking concomitant medications that may affect the clinical manifestations of PAH (eg, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, digoxin, or L arginine supplementation, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor blockers), must be on a stable dose for at least 30 days prior to the Baseline Visit and the dosage maintained throughout the study. The exception is that the dose of diuretics must be stable for at least the 10 days prior to Baseline.
• Both male and female subjects agree to use a highly effective method of birth control throughout the entire study period from informed consent through to the 30-Day Follow-up Visit, if the possibility of conception exists. Eligible male and female subjects must also agree not to participate in a conception process during the study and for 30 days after the last dose of IMP. Eligible male subjects must agree not to participate in sperm donation for 90 days after the last dose of IMP.
• For subjects with known HIV-associated PAH, a cluster designation 4 (CD4+) T-cell count <200/mm3 within 90 days of Baseline.
• Must not have 3 or more left ventricular dysfunction risk factors as defined in the study protocol.
• Has evidence of more than mild lung disease on pulmonary function tests performed within 180 days prior to, or during Screening.
• Has evidence of thromboembolic disease as determined by a V/Q lung scan or local standard of care diagnostic evaluation at or after diagnosis of PAH.
• Current diagnosis of ongoing and clinically significant sleep apnea as defined by the Investigator.
• Male subjects with a corrected QT interval using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) >450 msec and female subjects with a QTcF >470 msec on ECG recorded at Screening and analyzed by the central ECG laboratory. Subjects with evidence of intraventricular conduction delay, defined as a QRS interval greater than 110 msec, will be excluded if the QTcF is >500 msec for both males and females.
• Severe chronic liver disease (ie, Child-Pugh Class C), portal hypertension, cirrhosis or complications of cirrhosis/portal hypertension (eg, history of variceal hemorrhage, encephalopathy).
• Confirmed active infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV).
• Subjects with alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase ≥3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or total bilirubin ≥2 × ULN at Screening.
• Chronic renal insufficiency as defined by serum creatinine >2.5 mg/dL or requiring dialysis at Screening.
• Hemoglobin concentration <9 g/dL at Screening.
• Subjects treated with an IV or SC prostacyclin pathway agent (eg, epoprostenol, treprostinil, or iloprost) for PAH at any time prior to Baseline (use in vasoreactive testing is permitted).
• Subjects currently on or who were treated with an inhaled or oral prostacyclin pathway agent (iloprost, treprostinil, beraprost, or selexipag) for >6 months or within 90 days prior to Baseline.
• Subject has pulmonary veno-occlusive disease.
• Malignancy diagnosed and/or treated within 5 years prior to Screening, with the exception of localized non-metastatic basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin or in-situ carcinoma of the cervix excised with curative intent.
• Subject tests positive for amphetamine, cocaine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine or phencyclidine in urine drug screen performed at Screening, or has a recent history (6 months) of alcohol or drug abuse. A subject will not be excluded due to a positive drug screen caused by prescribed medications.
• Initiation or discontinuation of a cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation program based upon exercise within 90 days prior to Screening and/or planned during study participation.
• Prior participation in any study of ralinepag or participation in another interventional clinical study with medicinal products within 30 days prior to Screening. Concurrent participation in registry or observational studies is allowed, as long as the subject can fulfill all other entry criteria and comply with all study procedures.
• Any reason that, in the opinion of the Investigator or Medical Monitor, precludes the subject from participating in the study (eg, any previous or intercurrent medical condition) that may increase the risk associated with study participation or that would confound study analysis or impair study participation or cooperation.
• Known hypersensitivity to ralinepag or any of the excipients.
• Life expectancy <12 months based on the Investigator's opinion.
• Women who are pregnant, lactating or breast-feeding.
Digital Tomosynthesis Mammography and Digital Mammography in Screening Patients for Breast Cancer
This randomized phase III trial studies digital tomosynthesis mammography and digital mammography in screening patients for breast cancer. Screening for breast cancer with tomosynthesis mammography may be superior to digital mammography for breast cancer screening and may help reduce the need for additional imaging or treatment.
• Women of childbearing potential must not be known to be pregnant or lactating
• Patients must be scheduled for, or have intent to schedule, a screening mammogram
• Patients must be able to tolerate digital breast tomosynthesis and full-field digital mammographic imaging required by protocol.
• Patients must be willing and able to provide a written informed consent
• Patients must not have symptoms or signs of benign or malignant breast disease (eg, nipple discharge, breast lump) warranting a diagnostic rather than a screening mammogram, and/or other imaging studies (eg, sonogram); patients with breast pain are eligible as long as other criteria are met
• Patients must not have had a screening mammogram within the last 11 months prior to date of randomization
• Patients must not have previous personal history of breast cancer including ductal carcinoma in situ
• Patients must not have breast enhancements (e.g., implants or injections)
• ANNUAL SCREENING REGIMEN ELIGIBILITY CHECK
• To be eligible for inclusion in the annual screening regimen one of the following three conditions must be met in addition to the eligibility criteria above:
• Patients are pre-menopausal; OR
• Post-menopausal aged 45-69 with any of the following three risks factors:
• Dense breasts (BIRADS density categories c-heterogeneously dense or d-extremely dense), or
• Family history of breast cancer (first degree relative with breast cancer), or, positive genetic testing for any deleterious genes that indicate an increased risk for breast cancer, or
• Currently on hormone therapy; OR
• Post-menopausal ages 70-74 with either of the following two risk factors:
• Dense breasts (BIRADS density categories c-heterogeneously dense or d-extremely dense), or
• Currently on hormone therapy
• Postmenopausal women are defined as those with their last menstrual period more than 12 months prior to study entry; for the purpose of defining menopausal status for women who have had surgical cessation of their periods, women who no longer have menses due to hysterectomy and oophorectomy will be considered postmenopausal; women who no longer have menses due to hysterectomy without oophorectomy will be considered premenopausal until age 52 and postmenopausal thereafter
• All other postmenopausal women are eligible for inclusion in the biennial screening regimen
• For those women who cannot be assigned to annual or biennial screening at the time of study entry and randomization because they are postmenopausal, have no family history or known deleterious breast cancer mutation, are not on hormone therapy AND have not had a prior mammogram, breast density will be determined by the radiologist?s recording of it at the time of interpretation of the first study screening examination, either DM or TM; for those who are randomized to TM, radiologists will assign BI-RADS density through review of the DM or synthetic DM portion of the TM examination; such women cannot be part of the planned stratification by screening frequency and are expected to represent far less than 1% of the Tomosynthesis Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (TMIST) population
• Breast density will be determined by prior mammography reports, when available; all other risk factors used to determine patient eligibility for annual or biennial screening will be determined by subject self-report
Semaglutide Effects on Heart Disease and Stroke in Patients With Overweight or Obesity (SELECT)
The researchers are doing the study to see if semaglutide may reduce the risk of having cardiovascular events in patients with overweight or obesity and with prior cardiovascular disease. The participant will either get semaglutide (active medicine) or placebo ("dummy" medicine). Which treatment the participants get is decided by chance. The participant's chance of getting semaglutide or placebo is the same. The participant will get the study medicine in a pen. The participants will need to use the pen to inject the study medicine in a skinfold once a week. The study will last for about 2.5 to 5 years. Participants will have up to 25 clinic visits with the study doctor.
Exploring the Effects of Corticosteroids on the Human Hippocampus
Chronic corticosteroid (CS) exposure is associated with changes in memory and the hippocampus in both humans and in animal models. The hippocampus has a high concentration of glucocorticoid receptors (GCRs), and the pre-clinical literature demonstrates shortening of apical dendrites in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) following CS administration. In humans, both stress and CS exposure are associated with a decline in declarative memory performance (a process mediated by the hippocampus). Impairment in declarative memory and hippocampal atrophy are reported in patients with excessive CS release due to Cushing's disease, and, by our group, in patients receiving prescription CS therapy. These findings have important implications for patients with mood disorders, as a large subset of people with major depressive disorder (MDD) show evidence of HPA axis activation, elevated cortisol and, importantly, resistance to the effects of CSs on both the HPA axis and on declarative memory. Thus, resistance to corticosteroids appears to be a consequence of MDD. this study will examine changes in declarative memory, as well as use state-of-the-art high-resolution multimodal neuroimaging, including structural and functional (i.e., task-based and resting state) MRI, in both men and women healthy controls, and, as an exploratory aim, a depressed group, given 3-day exposures to hydrocortisone (160 mg/day) or placebo. The study will translate preclinical findings to humans, provide valuable data on possible sex differences in the response to cortisol and, for the first time, identify specific hippocampal subfields (e.g., CA3/DG) in humans that are most sensitive to acute CS effects. Using resting state fMRI data and whole brain connectomics using graph theoretical approaches, we will determine the effects of cortisol exposure on functional brain networks. Furthermore, this will be the first study to use neuroimaging to compare the brain's response to CSs in people with depression vs. controls, and determine whether depressed people demonstrate glucocorticoid resistance within the hippocampus. We hypothesize that hippocampal response to acute CSs will be greatest in the CA3/DG subfield, greater in women than in men, and that depressed people will show a blunted hippocampal response to CSs compared to controls. A multidisciplinary research team with extensive experience in CS effects on the brain and hippocampal subfield neuroimaging, and a prior history of research collaboration, will conduct the project.
• Men and women age 18-40 years with vision corrected to at least 20-40 (needed for fMRI tasks)
• Education of ≥ 12 years
• Baseline RAVLT total words recalled T-score ≥ 40 (normal range)
• BMI between 18.5-35.0 (neither underweight nor severely obese)
• Baseline QIDS-C ≤ 5 (virtual absence of depressive symptoms) for "healthy controls" and for the "depressed" group a QIDS-C between 11-20 (≥ moderate depressive symptoms but < very severe depressive symptoms)
• History of major psychiatric illness other than MDD for the depressed group, defined as bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders, or MDD with psychotic features. For the control group, a past episode of MDD (per SCID) is also exclusionary
• History of drug or alcohol use disorder
• History of neurological disorders including seizures, brain surgery, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease
• Taking CNS-acting medications (e.g., antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium, anticonvulsants, sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytics). Thus, the depressed group will be medication free.
• History of allergic reaction or medical contraindication to hydrocortisone
• Metal implants, claustrophobia, or other contraindications to MRI
• Significant medical conditions (e.g., cancer, heart disease, diabetes)
• Vulnerable population including pregnant or nursing women, prisoners, and people with intellectual disability, history of special education classes, dementia, or other severe cognitive disorders
• Current suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt in the past 12 months or more than one lifetime attempt
• History of systemic CS use in the past 12 months, lifetime cumulative use of more than 12 weeks, or recent (defined as past 28 days) inhaled CS use
• Women who are using estrogen containing oral contraceptive agents (other contraceptives are acceptable, see Protection of Human Subjects section for a list of acceptable birth control methods) or who are post- or peri-menopausal or with irregular menstrual cycles (i.e., inconsistent menstruation patterns)