AHEAD 3-45 Study: A Study to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of Treatment With Lecanemab in Participants With Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease and Elevated Amyloid and Also in Participants With Early Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease and Intermediate Amyloid
The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether treatment with lecanemab is superior to placebo on change from baseline of the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite 5 (PACC5) at 216 weeks of treatment (A45 Trial) and to determine whether treatment with lecanemab is superior to placebo in reducing brain amyloid accumulation as measured by amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) at 216 weeks of treatment (A3 Trial).
• Male or female, age 55 to 80 years inclusive at the time of informed consent • Those 55 to 64 must have 1 of the following additional risk factors, given the relatively low rates of amyloid positivity less than (<) 65 years:
• First degree relative diagnosed with dementia onset before age 75, or
• Known to possess at least 1 apolipoprotein E4 variant (APOE4) allele, or
• Known before screening to have elevated brain amyloid according to previous PET or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing. Individuals with historical amyloid PET scans with intermediate brain amyloid (example, from preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies such as A4 or EARLY) are eligible to be screened, provided the participant did not participate in any clinical studies involving anti-amyloid therapies subsequent to the PET assessment
• Global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0 at screening
• Mini Mental State Examination score greater than or equal to (>=) 27 (with educational adjustments) at screening
• Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory subscale II (WMS-R LM II) score at screening of >=6
• A45 Trial: Elevated brain amyloid pathology by amyloid PET: defined as approximately greater than (>) 40 Centiloids on screening scan A3 Trial: Intermediate levels of brain amyloid pathology by amyloid PET: defined as approximately 20 to 40 Centiloids on screening scan
• Has a study partner that is willing to participate as a source of information and has approximately weekly contact with the participant (contact can be in-person, via telephone or electronic communication). The study partner must have sufficient contact such that the investigator feels the study partner can provide meaningful information about the participant's daily function
• Provide written (or electronic, if allowed per country-specific regulations) informed consent
• Willing and able to comply with all aspects of the protocol Exclusion criteria: Participants who meet any of the following criteria will be excluded from this study:
• Females who are breastfeeding or pregnant at screening or baseline
• Females of childbearing potential who: • Within 28 days before study entry, did not use a highly effective method of contraception For sites outside of the European union (EU), it is permissible that if a highly effective method of contraception is not appropriate or acceptable to the participant, then the participant must agree to use a medically acceptable method of contraception
• History of transient ischemic attacks (TIA), stroke, or seizures within 12 months of screening
• Current or history within the past 2 years of psychiatric diagnosis or symptoms that, in the opinion of the investigator, could interfere with study procedures
• Contraindications to 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, including cardiac pacemaker/defibrillator, ferromagnetic metal implants (example, in-skull and cardiac devices other than those approved as safe for use in MRI scanners), or exhibit other significant pathological findings on brain MRI at Screening
• Hypersensitivity to any monoclonal antibody treatment
• Any immunological disease which is not adequately controlled, or which requires treatment with immunoglobulins, systemic monoclonal antibodies (or derivatives of monoclonal antibodies), systemic immunosuppressants, or plasmapheresis during the study
• Bleeding disorder that is not under adequate control (including a platelet count <50,000 or international normalized ratio [INR] >1.5) at screening
• Results of laboratory tests conducted during screening that are outside the following limits:
• Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) above normal range
• Abnormally low (below lower limit of normal [LLN]) serum vitamin B12 levels for the testing laboratory (if participant is taking vitamin B12 injections, level should be at or above the LLN for the testing laboratory). A low vitamin B12 is exclusionary, unless the required follow-up labs (homocysteine and methylmalonic acid [MMA]) indicate that it is not physiologically significant
• Known to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive
• Any other clinically significant abnormalities that in the opinion of the investigator require further investigation or treatment or may interfere with study procedures or safety
• Malignant neoplasms within 3 years of screening (except for basal or squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the skin, or localized prostate cancer in male participants with treatment cycles completed at least 6 months before screening). Participants who had malignant neoplasms but who have had at least 3 years of documented uninterrupted remission before screening need not be excluded
• Answer "yes" to Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) suicidal ideation Type 4 or 5, or any suicidal behavior assessment within 6 months before screening, at screening, or at baseline, or has been hospitalized or treated for suicidal behavior in the past 5 years before screening
• Known or suspected history of drug or alcohol abuse or dependence within 2 years before screening or a positive urine drug test at screening. Participants who test positive for benzodiazepines, opioids, or tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in urine drug testing need not be excluded unless in the clinical opinion of the investigator this is due to potential drug abuse
• Taking prohibited medications
• Participation in a clinical study involving:
• Any anti-amyloid immunotherapy (example, therapeutic monoclonal antibody or active anti-amyloid vaccine) at any time, unless it can be documented that the participant was randomized to placebo or never received study drug
• Any immunoglobulin therapy, or vaccine within 6 months before Screening, unless it can be documented that the participant was randomized to placebo or never received study drug
• Any new chemical entities or investigational drug for AD within 6 months before screening unless it can be documented that the participant received only placebo
• Any other investigational medication or device study in the 8 weeks or 5 half-lives (whichever is longer) of the medication before randomization unless it can be documented that the participant was in a placebo treatment arm
• Planned surgery during the prerandomization phase or within 3 months of randomization, which requires general anesthesia
Impact of Intensive Treatment of SBP on Brain Perfusion, Amyloid, and Tau (IPAT Study) (IPAT)
The purpose of this study is to determine if intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure (SBP), using FDA approved medications (antihypertensive), reduces Alzheimer's Disease pathology (i.e., excessive brain amyloid and tau protein deposition) in older adults at high risk for memory decline or dementia.
• Age 60-80, all races/ethnicities, and both sexes are eligible;
• a) A positive family history of dementia defined as having at least one first-degree relative with a history of AD or other type of dementia or
• b) having subjective memory complaints defined as a positive answer to BOTH of the following questions:
• "Are you worried about your memory or thinking abilities? a) Not at all, b) A little bit, c) A lot"; B and C - includes
• "Do you feel you have difficulty with your memory or thinking that is worse than in the past?" b) Yes or No; Yes - includes
• Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) ≥ 26 to exclude gross dementia; based on clinical judgment, may be rescreened in ≥ 7 days;
• Individuals with SBP ≥ 130 and SBP ≤ 180; Those on antihypertensives are eligible. If an individual, not treated for HTN, has a SBP ≥ 125 mmHg, consider rescreening after 24 hours;
• Willingness to be randomized into the treatment groups and ability to return to clinic for follow-up visits over 24 months;
• Fluency in English or Spanish or both, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing;
• Participants must have a regular healthcare provider.
• Clinically documented history of stroke, focal neurological signs or other major cerebrovascular diseases based on clinical judgment or MRI/CT scans such as evidence of infection, infarction, or other brain lesions;
• Diagnosis of AD or other type of dementia, or significant neurologic diseases such as Parkinson's disease, seizure disorder, multiple sclerosis, history of severe head trauma or normal pressure hydrocephalus;
• Evidence of severe major depression (GDS ≥ 12, may be rescreened after 12 weeks or longer if evidence of reactive depression or temporary mood disturbances) or clinically significant psychopathology, (e.g., psychosis and schizophrenia); if hospitalized in past year, can be rescreened in 6 months; or presence of a major psychiatric disorder that in the investigator's opinion, could interfere with adherence to research assessments or procedures.
• Unstable heart disease based on clinical judgment (e.g., heart attack/cardiac arrest, cardiac bypass procedures within previous 6 months and congestive heart failure), or other severe medical conditions;
• History of atrial fibrillation and evidence on ECG with any of the following: active symptoms of persistent palpitation, dizziness, history of syncope, chest pain, dyspnea, orthopnea, shortness of breath at rest, or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea within the past 6 months; resting heart rate of < 30 or > 110 bpm; taking class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs including flecainide, propafenone, dronedarone, sotalol, dofetilide, and amiodarone; or clinical concerns for safely participating in lowering blood pressure.
• Systolic BP equal or greater than 180 mmHg and/or diastolic BP equal or greater than 110 mmHg, may be rescreened in 1 week.
• Orthostatic hypotension, defined as the third standing SBP < 100mmHg, may be rescreened after 2 weeks;
• History of significant autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis or polymyalgia rheumatica;
• Significant history of alcoholism or drug abuse within the last five years;
• Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, defined as hemoglobin A1C > 6.5%, or requiring insulin treatment;
• Clinically diagnosed and untreated sleep apnea;
• Regularly smoking cigarettes within the past year;
• Pacemaker or other medical device of metal that precludes performing MRI;
• Women with a potential for pregnancy, lactation/childbearing (2 year post-menopausal or surgically sterile to be considered not childbearing potential);
• Participant enrolled in another investigational drug or device study, either currently or within the past 2 months;
• Severe obesity with BMI > 40 ; clinical judgment should be applied in all cases to assess patient safety and anticipated compliance;
• Allergy to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), i.e., drugs that have a suffix "-sartan"; allergy to amlodipine;
• Abnormal screening laboratory tests (e.g., liver ALT and AST > 3 x ULN, GFR < 30 or Hct < 28%); may be rescreened after 2 weeks or longer;
• A medical condition likely to limit survival to less than 3 years;
• Participant has any condition(s) judged by the study investigator to be medically inappropriate, risky or likely to cause poor study compliance. For example:
• Plans to move outside the clinic catchment area in the next 2 years;
• Significant concerns about participation in the study from spouse, significant other, or family members;
• Lack of support from primary health care provider;
• Residence too far from the study clinic site such that transportation is a barrier including persons who require transportation assistance provided by the study clinic funds for screening or randomization visits;
• Residence in a nursing home; persons residing in an assisted living or retirement community are eligible if they meet the other criteria;
• Other medical, psychiatric, or behavioral factors that, in the judgment of the site PI or clinician, may interfere with study participation or the ability to follow the study Protocol.
• Couples or significant partners who live together cannot be enrolled or participate simultaneously in the study.
Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease (LOAD)
The goal of this study is to is to focus on the genetic influences on Alzheimer's Disease (AD) risk. The investigators are looking for families and/or individuals (affected or unaffected) of any ethic background (African American, Caucasian, and Hispanics) with a family history of AD and willing to participate.
• Established diagnosis of definite or probable AD or have a diagnosis of a related neurodegenerative disorder such as Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) or Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) (will also recruit sporadic FTD and LBD) cases.
• a living sibling with probable or possible AD;
• a third living relative affected with AD (onset age 50 or older) or unaffected (60 or older);
• participants in the proband's generation with an identified companion serving as an informant;
• participants who have capacity to consent or participants lacking capacity to consent with a surrogate/proxy in place to provide consent.
• failure to identify an appropriate informant;
• uncertainty of the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or other related disorder;
• discovery of additional diagnosis that could account for the clinical manifestations;
• unwillingness to participate;
• failure to identify a living sibling with AD or other related disorder (except in the cases of sporadic FTD and sporadic LBD);
• participants lacking the capacity to consent who do not have a surrogate or proxy or next of kin to provide consent.