3 Study Matches
Optimizing the Use of Ketamine to Reduce Chronic Postsurgical Pain (KALPAS)
Our study utilizes a 3-arm placebo-controlled RCT to study the effectiveness of ketamine in reducing chronic post-mastectomy pain. Participants randomized to the first arm will receive a 0.35 mg/kg dose after induction, followed by a 0.3 mg/kg/hr infusion throughout surgery and continued for 2 hours postoperatively. Participants in the second arm will receive a single dose of 0.6 mg/kg of ketamine in the post-anesthesia care unit, and the final group will serve as the control group and receive saline (no ketamine).
18 Years and over
• Woman 18 years of age or older
• Undergoing elective breast surgery for oncologic indication as follows: unilateral or bilateral mastectomy, prophylacticmastectomy, +/- lymph node dissection, +/- immediate or delayed reconstruction.
• No distant metastases
• History of cognitive impairment or clinical signs of altered mental status (AMS) that may interfere with adherence to study procedures and/or participant safety. Clinical signs of AMS may include but are not limited to: confusion, amnesia, disorientation, fluctuating levels of alertness, etc.
• Past ketamine or phencyclidine misuse or abuse
• Schizophrenia or history of psychosis
• History of post-traumatic stress disorder
• Known sensitivity or allergy to ketamine
• Liver or renal insufficiency
• History of uncontrolled hypertension, chest pain, cardiac arrhythmia, stroke, head trauma, intracranial mass or hemorrhage, glaucoma, porphyria, uncontrolled thyroid disease, or other contraindication to ketamine
• Lamotrigine, alfentanil, physostigmine, or 4-aminopyridine use
• Currently Pregnant
• Body mass index (BMI) greater than 35
• Non-English or non-Spanish speaker
• Currently participating in another pain interventional trial
• Unwilling to comply with all study procedures and be available for the duration of the study
• Patient is American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status 4, 5, or 6
• Patient has started or undergone hormone therapy for gender transition into male.
• Patient scheduled for any bilateral (or greater) flap reconstruction
Drug: Continuous ketamine infusion, Drug: Ketamine + Saline, Other: Placebo
Breast - Female, Chronic Postsurgical Pain
Elucidating the Neurocircuitry of Irritability With High-Field Neuroimaging to Identify Novel Therapeutic Targets (UNIKET)
The study is investigating dysfunctions in neurocircuitry in regards to irritability with healthy controls (HC) and individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) by performing MRIs. The MDD group will also be randomized to receive ketamine or midazolam to investigate changes post-treatment in neurocircuitry with regards to irritability.
18 Years to 65 Years old
Inclusion Criteria:1. Male or female subjects, 18-65 years of age and body weight less than or equal to 120 kg on baseline visit. 2. Participants must have a level of understanding of the English language sufficient to agree to all tests and examinations required by the study and must be able to participate fully in the informed consent process. 3. For Healthy Controls: Subjects must be free of any lifetime psychiatric condition based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). For MDD: Subjects must meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for current unipolar depression [major depressive disorder (MDD) or persistent depressive disorder (PDD) in a current major depressive episode (MDE)] based on MINI. 4. A woman of childbearing potential who is sexually active with a male must agree to use an acceptable method of contraception [defined as either one highly effective (permanent sterilization, intrauterine device or hormonal implant) or two other forms of contraception (such as oral contraceptive pill and condom)] to avoid pregnancy throughout the study. Throughout the study and for 90 days (one spermatogenesis cycle) after receiving the last dose of study drug (ketamine/midazolam) man who is sexually active with a woman of childbearing potential must use an acceptable method of contraception (described above) with his female partner and must agree not to donate sperm. 5. Subjects must either be free of psychotropic medications (including antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, sedative/hypnotics, dopamine agonists, stimulants, buspirone, and triptans) and certain anticonvulsants (topiramate and levetiracetam) or be stable on these medications for four weeks prior to the baseline visit [first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan]. 6. Subjects with MDD should be willing to participate in neuroimaging scans before and after infusions, and be willing to undergo infusions with study drug.
Exclusion Criteria:1. Lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia or any psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, pervasive developmental disorder or intellectual development disorder. 2. Current diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia nervosa or bulimia. Comorbid anxiety, stress and trauma-related disorders are permitted as long as unipolar depression is the primary diagnosis. 3. Diagnosis of a moderate or severe substance use disorder within the past 6 months per MINI; all subjects must have a negative urine toxicology test on the day of the MRI, prior to the scan. 4. Female subjects who are pregnant, nursing, for may become pregnant. Women of childbearing potential must have a negative urine pregnancy test on the day of the fMRI, prior to scan, and on days of study drug infusion, prior to infusion. 5. Any unstable medical illnesses including hepatic, renal, gastroenterologic, respiratory, cardiovascular (including ischemic heart disease), endocrinologic, immunologic, or hematologic disease. 6. Inadequately treated obstructive sleep apnea (STOP-Bang score of 5-8 if untreated, if using positive airway pressure device then past-month apnea hypopnea index ≥ 15 per hour representing moderate or higher severity). 7. Presence of a significant neurological disease such as Parkinson's disease, primary or secondary seizure disorders, intracranial tumors, or severe head trauma. 8. Presence of neurocognitive or dementing disorders. 9. Clinically significant abnormalities of laboratories, physical examination (including unstable hypertension
•systolic blood pressure >170, diastolic blood pressure >100), or electrocardiogram at screening visit. 10. Subjects judged to be at serious and imminent suicidal or homicidal risk by the PI or another study-affiliated psychiatrist. 11. Any contraindications to MRI, including pacemakers or metallic objects in the body. 12. Any claustrophobia or other conditions which may result in inability to lie still in the MRI scanner for 1 hour or more. 13. Allergy to ketamine or midazolam in subjects with MDD. 14. Must not be on any prohibited concomitant medication.
Drug: Ketamine Hydrochloride, Drug: Midazolam injection
Major Depressive Disorder, Psychiatric Disorders, Healthy Controls
major depressive disorder, MDD, depression, depressive disorder, depression symptoms, healthy controls, irritability, ketamine
A Study to Compare the Long-term Outcomes After Two Different Anaesthetics (TREX)
There is considerable evidence that most general anaesthetics modulate brain development in animal studies. The impact is greater with longer durations of exposure and in younger animals. There is great controversy over whether or not these animal data are relevant to human clinical scenarios. The changes seen in preclinical studies are greatest with GABA agonists and NMDA antagonists such as volatile anaesthetics (eg sevoflurane), propofol, midazolam, ketamine, and nitrous oxide. There is less evidence for an effect with opioid (such as remifentanil) or with alpha 2 agonists (such as dexmedetomidine). Some, but not all, human cohort studies show an association between exposure to anaesthesia in infancy or early childhood and later changes in cognitive tests, school performance or risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders. The evidence is weak due to possible confounding. A recent well designed cohort study (the PANDA study) comparing young children that had hernia repair to their siblings found no evidence for a difference in a range of detailed neuropsychological tests. In that study most children were exposed to up to two hours of anaesthesia. The only trial (the GAS trial) has compared children having hernia repair under regional or general anesthesia and has found no evidence for a difference in neurodevelopment when tested at two years of age. The GAS and PANDA studies confirm the animal data that short exposure is unlikely to cause any neurodevelopmental impact. The impact of longer exposures is still unknown. In humans the strongest evidence for an association between surgery and poor neurodevelopmental outcome is in infants having major surgery. However, this is also the group where confounding is most likely. The aim of our study is to see if a new combination of anaesthetic drugs results in a better long-term developmental outcome than the current standard of care for children having anaesthesia expected to last 2 hours or longer. Children will be randomised to receive either a low dose sevoflurane/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine or standard dose sevoflurane anaesthetic. They will receive a neurodevelopmental assessment at 3 years of age to assess global cognitive function.
up to 2 Years old
• Younger than 2 years (chronological age)
• Scheduled for anaesthesia that is expected to last at least 2 hours (and/or total operating room time is scheduled to be at least 2.5 hours)
• Has a legally acceptable representative capable of understanding the informed consent document and providing consent on the participant's behalf.
• Known neurologic, chromosomal or congenital anomaly which is likely to be associated with poor neurobehavioural outcome
• Existing diagnosis of behavioural or neurodevelopmental disability
• Prematurity (defined as < 36 weeks gestational age at birth)
• Birth weight less than 2 kg.
• Congenital cardiac disease requiring surgery
• Intracranial neurosurgery and intracranial craniofacial surgery (isolated cleft lip is not an exclusion)
• Previous cumulative exposure to general anaesthesia exceeding 2 hours
• Planned future cumulative exposure to anaesthesia exceeding 2 hours before the age of 3 years.
• Any specific contra-indication to any aspect of the protocol
• Previous adverse reaction to any anaesthetic
• Circumstances likely to make long term follow-up impossible
• Living in a household where the primary language spoken at home is not a language in which we can administer the Wechsler Preschool and Primary School Intelligence Scale
• Planned postoperative sedation with any agent except opioids (e.g. benzodiazepines, dexmedetomidine, ketamine, barbiturates, propofol, clonidine, chloral hydrate, and other non-opioid sedatives). For example if such sedation is planned for post-operative ventilation
Drug: Sevoflurane, Drug: Remifentanil, Drug: Dexmedetomidine
Neurotoxicity, Anesthesia, Child Development