3 Study Matches
Etomidate Versus Ketamine for Emergency Endotracheal Intubation: a Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial (EvK)
Patients who are having problems breathing sometimes require placement of a breathing tube in their mouth and windpipe. The purpose of this breathing tube is to save the patient's life. It is common to give the patient a medication to sedate him or her before the breathing tube is placed. For patients who are gravely ill two medications are commonly used: etomidate or ketamine. Both medications have risks and benefits. Researchers at UT-Southwestern Medical Center and Parkland Memorial Hospital would like to do a study to figure out which one is better for our patients.
18 Years and over
• Adult patient (male or female) requiring emergency endotracheal intubation.
• Children (<18 years old).
• Women who are known to be pregnant.
• Any patient who has been previously randomized in the EvK Trial.
• Patients who require endotracheal intubation without sedative medication. For example, patients in full cardiac arrest.
• Patients with a known allergy to ketamine or etomidate.
• Any individual wearing a MedAlert bracelet indicating that he/she has formally opted out of the EvK Trial.
Drug: Etomidate, Drug: Ketamine, Procedure: Emergency Endotracheal Intubation, Device: Mechanical Ventilation
Cardiopulmonary Arrest, Respiratory Arrest
etomidate, ketamine, endotracheal intubation, anesthesia induction medications
Sedation Strategy and Cognitive Outcome After Critical Illness in Early Childhood (RESTORE-cog)
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between sedative exposure during pediatric critical illness and long-term neurocognitive outcomes. We will test for drug- and dose-dependent relationships between sedative exposure and neurocognitive outcomes along the early developmental spectrum and will control for baseline and environmental factors, as well as the severity and course of illness. Hypotheses: 1. Greater exposure to benzodiazepines and/or ketamine will be associated with lower IQ even when controlling for severity of illness, hospital course, and baseline factors. In addition, benzodiazepines and/or ketamine will negatively affect other aspects of neurocognitive function. 2. Younger children exposed to benzodiazepines and/or ketamine will have worse neurocognitive outcomes than older children with similar sedative exposure and severity of illness.
30 Months to 13 Years old
Inclusion Criteria:RESTORE subjects
• Age ≤8 years and PCPC=1 at RESTORE PICU admission
• PCPC ≤3 at RESTORE hospital discharge Sibling control subjects Inclusion criteria:
• Age 4 to 17 years at time of testing
• Same biological parents as primary subject
• Lives with the primary subject
Exclusion Criteria:RESTORE subjects
• Hospital readmission that includes MV and sedation
• History of cardiac arrest, traumatic brain injury (TBI) with loss of consciousness, genetic disorder, premature birth <32 weeks gestational age, or birth weight <2500 g Sibling control subjects
• Adopted or step siblings
• History of MV and sedation, receipt of general anesthesia, cardiac arrest, TBI with loss of consciousness, genetic disorder, premature birth <32 weeks gestational age, or birth weight <2500 gm.
Intellectual Disability, Perceptual Disorders, Memory Disorders
intensive care, critical care, child, family, survivors
A Study to Compare the Long-term Outcomes After Two Different Anaesthetics (TREX)
There is considerable evidence that most general anaesthetics modulate brain development in animal studies. The impact is greater with longer durations of exposure and in younger animals. There is great controversy over whether or not these animal data are relevant to human clinical scenarios. The changes seen in preclinical studies are greatest with GABA agonists and NMDA antagonists such as volatile anaesthetics (eg sevoflurane), propofol, midazolam, ketamine, and nitrous oxide. There is less evidence for an effect with opioid (such as remifentanil) or with alpha 2 agonists (such as dexmedetomidine). Some, but not all, human cohort studies show an association between exposure to anaesthesia in infancy or early childhood and later changes in cognitive tests, school performance or risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders. The evidence is weak due to possible confounding. A recent well designed cohort study (the PANDA study) comparing young children that had hernia repair to their siblings found no evidence for a difference in a range of detailed neuropsychological tests. In that study most children were exposed to up to two hours of anaesthesia. The only trial (the GAS trial) has compared children having hernia repair under regional or general anesthesia and has found no evidence for a difference in neurodevelopment when tested at two years of age. The GAS and PANDA studies confirm the animal data that short exposure is unlikely to cause any neurodevelopmental impact. The impact of longer exposures is still unknown. In humans the strongest evidence for an association between surgery and poor neurodevelopmental outcome is in infants having major surgery. However, this is also the group where confounding is most likely. The aim of our study is to see if a new combination of anaesthetic drugs results in a better long-term developmental outcome than the current standard of care for children having anaesthesia expected to last 2 hours or longer. Children will be randomised to receive either a low dose sevoflurane/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine or standard dose sevoflurane anaesthetic. They will receive a neurodevelopmental assessment at 3 years of age to assess global cognitive function.
up to 2 Years old
• Younger than 2 years (chronological age)
• Scheduled for anaesthesia that is expected to last at least 2 hours (and/or total operating room time is scheduled to be at least 2.5 hours)
• Has a legally acceptable representative capable of understanding the informed consent document and providing consent on the participant's behalf.
• Known neurologic, chromosomal or congenital anomaly which is likely to be associated with poor neurobehavioural outcome
• Existing diagnosis of behavioural or neurodevelopmental disability
• Prematurity (defined as < 36 weeks gestational age at birth)
• Birth weight less than 2 kg.
• Congenital cardiac disease requiring surgery
• Intracranial neurosurgery and intracranial craniofacial surgery (isolated cleft lip is not an exclusion)
• Previous cumulative exposure to general anaesthesia exceeding 2 hours
• Planned future cumulative exposure to anaesthesia exceeding 2 hours before the age of 3 years.
• Any specific contra-indication to any aspect of the protocol
• Previous adverse reaction to any anaesthetic
• Circumstances likely to make long term follow-up impossible
• Living in a household where the primary language spoken at home is not a language in which we can administer the Wechsler Preschool and Primary School Intelligence Scale
• Planned postoperative sedation with any agent except opioids (e.g. benzodiazepines, dexmedetomidine, ketamine, barbiturates, propofol, clonidine, chloral hydrate, and other non-opioid sedatives). For example if such sedation is planned for post-operative ventilation
Drug: Sevoflurane, Drug: Remifentanil, Drug: Dexmedetomidine
Neurotoxicity, Anesthesia, Child Development